Regulation by 3′-untranslated regions Journal Article

Author: Mayr, C.
Article Title: Regulation by 3′-untranslated regions
Abstract: 3′-untranslated regions (3′-UTRs) are the noncoding parts of mRNAs. Compared to yeast, in humans, median 3′-UTR length has expanded approximately tenfold alongside an increased generation of alternative 3′-UTR isoforms. In contrast, the number of coding genes, as well as coding region length, has remained similar. This suggests an important role for 3′-UTRs in the biology of higher organisms. 3′-UTRs are best known to regulate diverse fates of mRNAs, including degradation, translation, and localization, but they can also function like long noncoding or small RNAs, as has been shown for whole 3′-UTRs as well as for cleaved fragments. Furthermore, 3′-UTRs determine the fate of proteins through the regulation of protein-protein interactions. They facilitate cotranslational protein complex formation, which establishes a role for 3′-UTRs as evolved eukaryotic operons. Whereas bacterial operons promote the interaction of two subunits, 3′-UTRs enable the formation of protein complexes with diverse compositions. All of these 3′-UTR functions are accomplished by effector proteins that are recruited by RNA-binding proteins that bind to 3′-UTR cis-elements. In summary, 3′-UTRs seem to be major players in gene regulation that enable local functions, compartmentalization, and cooperativity, which makes them important tools for the regulation of phenotypic diversity of higher organisms. Copyright © 2017 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Keywords: protein expression; review; nonhuman; protein localization; protein motif; phenotype; complex formation; protein protein interaction; gene function; protein interaction; rna binding protein; rna-binding proteins; protein processing; messenger rna; protein transport; cytoplasm; binding site; 3' untranslated region; untranslated rna; rna cleavage; protein rna binding; genetic regulation; operon; polyadenylation; noncoding rna; hydrogel; mrna localization; alternative polyadenylation; cooperativity; cellular organization; human; priority journal; long untranslated rna; regulatory rna; accessibility of regulatory elements; alternative 3′-utrs; cotranslational protein complex formation
Journal Title: Annual Review of Genetics
Volume: 51
ISSN: 0066-4197
Publisher: Annual Reviews  
Date Published: 2017-11-01
Start Page: 171
End Page: 194
Language: English
DOI: 10.1146/annurev-genet-120116-024704
PROVIDER: scopus
PUBMED: 28853924
Notes: Review -- Export Date: 2 January 2018 -- Source: Scopus
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MSK Authors
  1. Christine Mayr
    17 Mayr