Depression, cytokines, and pancreatic cancer Journal Article


Authors: Breitbart, W.; Rosenfeld, B.; Tobias, K.; Pessin, H.; Ku, G. Y.; Yuan, J.; Wolchok, J.
Article Title: Depression, cytokines, and pancreatic cancer
Abstract: Background The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between cytokines, depression, and pancreatic cancer. Method A total of 75 individuals were recruited from two New York City hospitals (a cancer center and a psychiatric hospital) and composed of four subgroups: patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas who did (n = 17) and did not (n = 26) have a diagnosis of Major Depressive Episode (MDE), and healthy participants with (n = 7) and without (n = 25) MDE. All individuals completed a battery of self-report measures. Sera was assayed using Meso Scale Discovery techniques to measure the following pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines: IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, IFN-gamma, TGF-beta, and TNF-Alpha; we also calculated the IL-2/IL-4 ratio. Results Pancreatic cancer patients had significantly higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10 and significantly lower TGF-beta levels than healthy participants. When the sample was divided into those with and without MDE, the groups only differed with regard to serum IL-6 levels. No significant cancer and depression interaction effect was observed. Severity of depressive symptoms was also significantly correlated with IL-6, rs = 0.28 and p = 0.02, whereas hopelessness was associated with IFN-Alpha, r s = 0.34 and p = 0.006. Pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbance were associated with several of the cytokines assayed including IL-1beta (pain intensity), IL-4 (pain intensity and overall sleep quality), IL-12p70 (pain intensity), and TGF-beta (fatigue intensity), but anxiety was not associated with any of the cytokines assayed. Conclusions This study demonstrated an association between depression and IL-6, but not with other cytokines. Moreover, IL-6 was not significantly associated with other measures of psychological distress (anxiety and hopelessness) or with symptom distress (pain, fatigue, and sleep quality), although some cytokines assayed were associated with specific symptoms. The implications of these findings for the etiology and treatment of depression in pancreatic cancer patients are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Keywords: adult; controlled study; middle aged; major clinical study; fatigue; alpha interferon; pancreas cancer; disease association; interleukin 2; pain; transforming growth factor beta; interleukin 10; interleukin 12p70; interleukin 1beta; interleukin 4; interleukin 5; oncology; self report; depression; cytokine; cytokines; disease severity; tumor necrosis factor alpha; gamma interferon; multicenter study; interleukin 6; distress syndrome; major depression; pancreas adenocarcinoma; anxiety; pancreatic cancer; sleep disorder; pain assessment; blood level; patient; hopelessness; diagnostic test accuracy study; il-6; interleukin 3; sleep quality; human; male; female; article
Journal Title: Psycho-Oncology
Volume: 23
Issue: 3
ISSN: 1057-9249
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons  
Date Published: 2014-03-01
Start Page: 339
End Page: 345
Language: English
DOI: 10.1002/pon.3422
PROVIDER: scopus
PUBMED: 24136882
PMCID: PMC4220448
DOI/URL:
Notes: Cited By (since 1996):1 -- Export Date: 1 August 2014 -- CODEN: POJCE -- Source: Scopus
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MSK Authors
  1. William S Breitbart
    347 Breitbart
  2. Hayley Ann Pessin
    70 Pessin