Effects of CT-Xp gene knock down in melanoma cell lines Journal Article

Authors: Caballero, O. L.; Cohen, T.; Gurung, S.; Chua, R.; Lee, P.; Chen, Y. T.; Jat, P.; Simpson, A. J. G.
Article Title: Effects of CT-Xp gene knock down in melanoma cell lines
Abstract: Cancer/testis (CT) genes are encoded by genes that are normally expressed only in the human germ line but which are activated in various malignancies. CT proteins are frequently immunogenic in cancer patients and their expression is highly restricted to tumors. They are thus important targets for anticancer immunotherapy. In several different tumor types, the expression of CT-X genes is associated with advanced disease and poor outcome, indicating that their expression might contribute to tumorigenesis. CT-X genes encoding members of the MAGE protein family on Xq28 have been shown to potentially influence the tumorigenic phenotype. We used small interfering RNA (siRNA) to investigate whether CT-X mapping to the short arm of the X-chromosome might also have tumorigenic properties and therefore be potentially targeted by functional inhibitors in a therapeutic setting. siRNAs specific to GAGE, SSX and XAGE1 were used in cell proliferation, migration and cell survival assays using cell lines derived from melanoma, a tumor type known to present high frequencies of expression of CT antigens. We found that of these, those specific to GAGE and XAGE1 most significantly impeded melanoma cell migration and invasion and those specific to SSX4 and XAGE1 decreased the clonogenic survival of melanoma cells. Our results suggest that GAGE, XAGE1 and SSX4 might each have a role in tumor progression and are possible therapeutic targets for the treatment of melanoma and other malignancies.
Keywords: controlled study; human cell; drug targeting; antigen expression; cell proliferation; cell survival; melanoma; neoplasm proteins; small interfering rna; rna, small interfering; rna interference; cancer cell culture; cell line, tumor; transfection; cell assay; carcinogenesis; gene mapping; blotting, western; antigens, neoplasm; reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; cancer testis antigen; nucleotide sequence; cell migration; cell movement; x chromosome; inhibition kinetics; melanoma antigen; gene silencing; tumor growth; tumor gene; repressor proteins; gene knockdown techniques; sirna; chromosome arm; gage gene; real-time polymerase chain reaction; ssx; ssx4 gene; cancer/testis genes; gage; xage1; ct xp gene; xage1 gene; genes, x-linked
Journal Title: Oncotarget
Volume: 4
Issue: 4
ISSN: 1949-2553
Publisher: Impact Journals  
Date Published: 2013-04-01
Start Page: 531
End Page: 541
Language: English
PROVIDER: scopus
PUBMED: 23625514
PMCID: PMC3720601
Notes: --- - "Export Date: 1 July 2013" - "Source: Scopus"