Comparison of the 5-year outcome and morbidity of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy versus transperineal permanent iodine-125 implantation for early-stage prostatic cancer Journal Article

Authors: Zelefsky, M. J.; Wallner, K. E.; Ling, C. C.; Raben, A.; Hollister, T.; Wolfe, T.; Grann, A.; Gaudin, P.; Fuks, Z.; Leibel, S. A.
Article Title: Comparison of the 5-year outcome and morbidity of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy versus transperineal permanent iodine-125 implantation for early-stage prostatic cancer
Abstract: Purpose: To compare the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse-free survival outcome and incidence of late toxicity for patients with early- stage prostate cancer treated at a single institution with either three- dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or transperineal permanent implantation (TPI) with iodine-125 seeds. Materials and Methods: Patients with favorable-risk prostate cancer, defined as a pretreatment PSA of less than or equal to 10.0 ng/mL, Gleason score of 6 or lower, and stage less than or equal to T2b, were selected for this analysis. Between 1989 and 1996, 137 such patients were treated with 3D-CRT and 145 with TPI. The median ages of the 3D-CRT and TPI groups were 68 years and 64 years, respectively. The median dose of 3D-CRT was 70.2 Gy, and the median implant dose was 150 Gy. Prostate-specific antigen relapse was defined according to the American Society of Therapeutic Radiation Oncology Consensus Statement, and toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Ontology Group morbidity scoring scale. The median follow-up times for the 3D-CRT and TPI groups were 36 and 24 months, respectively. Results: Eleven patients (8%) in the 3D-CRT group and 12 patients (8%) in the TPI group developed a biochemical relapse. The 5-year PSA relapse-free survival rates for the 3D-CRT and the TPI groups were 88% and 82%, respectively (P = .09). Protracted grade 2 urinary symptoms were more prevalent among patients treated with TPI compared with 3D-CRT. Grade 2 urinary toxicity, which was manifest after the implant and persisted for more than 1 year after this procedure, was observed in 45 patients (31%) in the TPI group. In these 45 patients, the median duration of grade 2 urinary symptoms was 23 months (range, 12 to 70 months). On the other hand, acute grade 2 urinary symptoms resolved within 4 to 6 weeks after completion of 3D-CRT, and the 5-year actuarial likelihood of late grade 2 urinary toxicity for the 3D-CRT group was only 8%. The 5-year actuarial likelihood of developing a urethral stricture (grade 3 urinary toxicity) for the 3DCRT and TPI groups was 2% and 12%, respectively (P < .0002). Of 45 patients who developed grade 2 or higher urinary toxicity after TPI, the likelihood of resolution or significant improvement of these symptoms at 36 months from onset was 59%. The 5-year likelihood of grade 2 late rectal toxicity for the 3D-CRT and TPI patients was similar (6% and 11%, respectively; P = .97). No patient in either group developed grade 3 or higher late rectal toxicity. The 5-year likelihood of posttreatment erectile dysfunction among patients who were initially potent before therapy was 43% for the 3D-CRT group and 53% for the TPI group (P = .52). Conclusion: Both 3D-CRT and TPI are associated with an excellent PSA outcome for patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Urinary toxicities are more prevalent for the TPI group and subsequently resolve or improve in most patients. In addition to evaluating long-term follow-up, future comparisons will require detailed quality-of-life assessments to further determine the impact of these toxicities on the overall well-being and quality of life of the individual patient.
Keywords: adult; cancer survival; controlled study; treatment outcome; aged; disease-free survival; middle aged; major clinical study; clinical trial; cancer recurrence; patient selection; comparative study; disease free survival; cancer staging; methodology; cancer grading; adenocarcinoma; prostate specific antigen; mouse; animal; animals; mice; quality of life; kidney disease; morbidity; radiation injury; prostate cancer; prostate-specific antigen; prostatic neoplasms; chemistry; iodine 125; radioactive iodine; iodine radioisotopes; prostate tumor; radiation injuries; brachytherapy; radiotherapy, conformal; computer assisted radiotherapy; erectile dysfunction; impotence; wellbeing; implantation; micturition disorder; kidney diseases; urination disorders; humans; human; male; priority journal; article
Journal Title: Journal of Clinical Oncology
Volume: 17
Issue: 2
ISSN: 0732-183X
Publisher: American Society of Clinical Oncology  
Date Published: 1999-02-01
Start Page: 517
End Page: 522
Language: English
PUBMED: 10080594
PROVIDER: scopus
Notes: Article -- Export Date: 16 August 2016 -- Source: Scopus