Safety and clinical activity of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors after programmed cell death 1 inhibitor treatment in patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma Journal Article


Authors: Nadal, R.; Amin, A.; Geynisman, D. M.; Voss, M. H.; Weinstock, M.; Doyle, J.; Zhang, Z.; Viudez, A.; Plimack, E. R.; McDermott, D. F.; Motzer, R.; Rini, B.; Hammers, H. J.
Article Title: Safety and clinical activity of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors after programmed cell death 1 inhibitor treatment in patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma
Abstract: Background: Emerging agents blocking the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) pathway show activity in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy after PD-1 inhibition. Patients and methods: Patients with mRCC treated with anti-PD-1 antibody (aPD-1) monotherapy or in combination (with VEGFR-TKI or ipilimumab) that subsequently received VEGFR-TKI were retrospectively reviewed. The efficacy end points were objective response rate (ORR) and progression-free survival (PFS) stratified by the type of prior PD-1 regimen. Safety by the type and PD-1 exposure was also evaluated. Results: Seventy patients were included. Forty-nine patients received prior therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) alone and 21 had combination therapy of aPD-1 and VEGFR-TKI. Overall, ORR to VEGFR-TKI after PD-1 inhibition was 28% (19/68) and the median PFS was 6.4 months (mo) (4.3-9.5). ORR to VEGFR-TKI after aPD-1 in combination with VEGFR-TKI was lower than that in patients treated with VEGFR-TKI after CPI alone (ORR 10% versus 36%, P = 0.039). In the multivariable analysis, patients treated with prior CPI alone were more likely to achieve an objective response than those treated with aPD-1 in combination with VEGFR-TKI (OR = 5.38; 95% CI 1.12-26.0, P = 0.03). There was a trend toward numerically longer median PFS in the VEGFR-TKI after the CPI alone group, 8.4 mo (3.2-12.4) compared with 5.5 mo (2.9-8.3) for those who had VEGFR-TKI after aPD-1 in combination with VEGFR-TKI (P = 0.15). The most common adverse events (AEs) were asthenia, hypertension, and diarrhea. Conclusions: The efficacy and safety of VEGFR-TKIs after PD-1 inhibition were demonstrated in this retrospective study. The response rate was lower and the median progression-free survival was shorter in those patients who received prior PD-1 in combination with VEGFR-TKI. PD-1 exposure does not seem to significantly influence the safety of subsequent VEGFR-TKI treatment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology.
Keywords: ipilimumab; renal cell carcinoma; nivolumab; pd-1 inhibitor; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor
Journal Title: Annals of Oncology
Volume: 27
Issue: 7
ISSN: 0923-7534
Publisher: Oxford University Press  
Date Published: 2016-07-01
Start Page: 1304
End Page: 1311
Language: English
DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdw160
PROVIDER: scopus
PUBMED: 27059553
PMCID: PMC6276905
DOI/URL:
Notes: Article -- Export Date: 2 August 2016 -- Source: Scopus
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MSK Authors
  1. Robert Motzer
    1044 Motzer
  2. Martin Henner Voss
    217 Voss