The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center recommendations for prostate cancer screening Journal Article


Authors: Vickers, A. J.; Eastham, J. A.; Scardino, P. T.; Lilja, H.
Article Title: The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center recommendations for prostate cancer screening
Abstract: The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) recommendations on prostate cancer screening were developed in response to three limitations of previous screening guidelines: insufficient evidence base, failure to link screening with treatment, and lack of risk stratification. The objective of the recommendations is to provide a schema for prostate cancer screening that maximizes the benefits, in terms of reduction in prostate cancer-specific mortality, and minimizes the harms, in terms of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. We recommend the following schema for men choosing to be screened following informed decision-making: starting at age 45, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) without digital rectal examination. If PSA >= 3 ng/mL: consider prostate biopsy; if PSA >= 1 but < 3 ng/mL: return for PSA testing every 2-4 years; if PSA < 1 ng/mL: return for PSA testing at 6-10 years. PSA testing should end at age 60 for men with PSA <= 1 ng/mL; at 70, unless a man is very healthy and has a higher than average PSA; at 75 for all men. The decision to biopsy a man with a PSA > 3 ng/mL should be based on a variety of factors including repeat blood draw for confirmatory testing of the PSA level, digital rectal examination results, and workup for benign disease. Additional reflex tests in blood such as a free-to-total PSA ratio, the Prostate Health Index, or 4Kscore, or urinary testing of PCA3, can also be informative in some patients. The best evidence suggests that more restricted indication for prostate biopsy and a more focused approach to pursue screening in men at highest risk of lethal cancer would retain most of the mortality benefits of aggressive screening schema, while importantly reducing harms from overdetection and overtreatment. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Keywords: radiotherapy; age; risk; diagnosis; radical prostatectomy; guidelines; follow-up; trial; antigen levels; benefits
Journal Title: Urology
Volume: 91
ISSN: 0090-4295
Publisher: Elsevier Science, Inc.  
Date Published: 2016-05-01
Start Page: 12
End Page: 17
Language: English
ACCESSION: WOS:000375901500007
DOI: 10.1016/j.urology.2015.12.054
PROVIDER: wos
PMCID: PMC4842100
PUBMED: 26850815
Notes: Editorial Material -- Source: Wos
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MSK Authors
  1. Peter T Scardino
    621 Scardino
  2. Hans Gosta Lilja
    286 Lilja
  3. Andrew J Vickers
    565 Vickers
  4. James Eastham
    427 Eastham