Commensal microbiota affects ischemic stroke outcome by regulating intestinal γδ T cells Journal Article


Authors: Benakis, C.; Brea, D.; Caballero, S.; Faraco, G.; Moore, J.; Murphy, M.; Sita, G.; Racchumi, G.; Lingo, L.; Pamer, E. G.; Iadecola, C.; Anrather, J.
Article Title: Commensal microbiota affects ischemic stroke outcome by regulating intestinal γδ T cells
Abstract: Commensal gut bacteria impact the host immune system and can influence disease processes in several organs, including the brain. However, it remains unclear whether the microbiota has an impact on the outcome of acute brain injury. Here we show that antibiotic-induced alterations in the intestinal flora reduce ischemic brain injury in mice, an effect transmissible by fecal transplants. Intestinal dysbiosis alters immune homeostasis in the small intestine, leading to an increase in regulatory T cells and a reduction in interleukin (IL)-17 positive gamma delta T cells through altered dendritic cell activity. Dysbiosis suppresses trafficking of effector T cells from the gut to the leptomeninges after stroke. Additionally, IL-10 and IL-17 are required for the neuroprotection afforded by intestinal dysbiosis. The findings reveal a previously unrecognized gut-brain axis and an impact of the intestinal flora and meningeal IL-17(+) gamma delta T cells on ischemic injury.
Keywords: brain; injury; tolerance; expression; mechanisms; immune-system; trafficking; gut microbiota; protects; cerebral-ischemia
Journal Title: Nature Medicine
Volume: 22
Issue: 5
ISSN: 1078-8956
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group  
Date Published: 2016-05-01
Start Page: 516
End Page: 523
Language: English
ACCESSION: WOS:000375514000014
DOI: 10.1038/nm.4068
PROVIDER: wos
PMCID: PMC4860105
PUBMED: 27019327
Notes: Article -- Source: Wos
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  1. Eric Pamer
    266 Pamer