A contemporary prostate cancer grading system: A validated alternative to the Gleason score Journal Article

Authors: Epstein, J. I.; Zelefsky, M. J.; Sjoberg, D. D.; Nelson, J. B.; Egevad, L.; Magi-Galluzzi, C.; Vickers, A. J.; Parwani, A. V.; Reuter, V. E.; Fine, S. W.; Eastham, J. A.; Wiklund, P.; Han, M.; Reddy, C. A.; Ciezki, J. P.; Nyberg, T.; Klein, E. A.
Article Title: A contemporary prostate cancer grading system: A validated alternative to the Gleason score
Abstract: Background: Despite revisions in 2005 and 2014, the Gleason prostate cancer (PCa) grading system still has major deficiencies. Combining of Gleason scores into a three-tiered grouping (6, 7, 8-10) is used most frequently for prognostic and therapeutic purposes. The lowest score, assigned 6, may be misunderstood as a cancer in the middle of the grading scale, and 3 + 4 = 7 and 4 + 3 = 7 are often considered the same prognostic group. Objective: To verify that a new grading system accurately produces a smaller number of grades with the most significant prognostic differences, using multi-institutional and multimodal therapy data. Design, setting, and participants: Between 2005 and 2014, 20 845 consecutive men were treated by radical prostatectomy at five academic institutions; 5501 men were treated with radiotherapy at two academic institutions. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Outcome was based on biochemical recurrence (BCR). The log-rank test assessed univariable differences in BCR by Gleason score. Separate univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards used four possible categorizations of Gleason scores. Results and limitations: In the surgery cohort, we found large differences in recurrence rates between both Gleason 3 + 4 versus 4 + 3 and Gleason 8 versus 9. The hazard ratios relative to Gleason score 6 were 1.9, 5.1, 8.0, and 11.7 for Gleason scores 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8, and 9-10, respectively. These differences were attenuated in the radiotherapy cohort as a whole due to increased adjuvant or neoadjuvant hormones for patients with high-grade disease but were clearly seen in patients undergoing radiotherapy only. A five-grade group system had the highest prognostic discrimination for all cohorts on both univariable and multivariable analysis. The major limitation was the unavoidable use of prostate-specific antigen BCR as an end point as opposed to cancer-related death. Conclusions: The new PCa grading system has these benefits: more accurate grade stratification than current systems, simplified grading system of five grades, and lowest grade is 1, as opposed to 6, with the potential to reduce overtreatment of PCa. Patient summary: We looked at outcomes for prostate cancer (PCa) treated with radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy and validated a new grading system with more accurate grade stratification than current systems, including a simplified grading system of five grades and a lowest grade is 1, as opposed to 6, with the potential to reduce overtreatment of PCa. (C) 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: survival; mortality; adenocarcinoma; risk; gleason score; gleason grade; radical prostatectomy; biochemical recurrence; outcomes; men; disease; radiation-therapy
Journal Title: European Urology
Volume: 69
Issue: 3
ISSN: 0302-2838
Publisher: Elsevier Science, Inc.  
Date Published: 2016-03-01
Start Page: 428
End Page: 435
Language: English
ACCESSION: WOS:000370356100027
DOI: 10.1016/j.eururo.2015.06.046
PUBMED: 26166626
PMCID: PMC5002992
Notes: Article -- Source: Wos
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MSK Authors
  1. Michael J Zelefsky
    612 Zelefsky
  2. Andrew J Vickers
    545 Vickers
  3. Daniel D. Sjoberg
    134 Sjoberg
  4. James Eastham
    422 Eastham
  5. Samson W Fine
    314 Fine
  6. Victor Reuter
    892 Reuter