Distinct patterns of dysregulated expression of enzymes involved in androgen synthesis and metabolism in metastatic prostate cancer tumors Journal Article


Authors: Mitsiades, N.; Sung, C. C.; Schultz, N.; Danila, D. C.; He, B.; Eedunuri, V. K.; Fleisher, M.; Sander, C.; Sawyers, C. L.; Scher, H. I.
Article Title: Distinct patterns of dysregulated expression of enzymes involved in androgen synthesis and metabolism in metastatic prostate cancer tumors
Abstract: Androgen receptor (AR) signaling persists in castration-resistant prostate carcinomas (CRPC), because of several mechanisms that include increased AR expression and intratumoral androgen metabolism. We investigated the mechanisms underlying aberrant expression of transcripts involved in androgen metabolism in CRPC. We compared gene expression profiles and DNA copy number alteration (CNA) data from 29 normal prostate tissue samples, 127 primary prostate carcinomas (PCa), and 19 metastatic PCas. Steroidogenic enzyme transcripts were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR in PCa cell lines and circulating tumor cells (CTC) from CRPC patients. Metastatic PCas expressed higher transcript levels for AR and several steroidogenic enzymes, including SRD5A1, SRD5A3, and AKR1C3, whereas expression of SRD5A2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7 was decreased. This aberrant expression was rarely associated with CNAs. Instead, our data suggest distinct patterns of coordinated aberrant enzyme expression. Inhibition of AR activity by itself stimulated AKR1C3 expression. The aberrant expression of the steroidogenic enzyme transcripts was detected in CTCs from CRPC patients. In conclusion, our findings identify substantial interpatient heterogeneity and distinct patterns of dysregulated expression of enzymes involved in intratumoral androgen metabolism in PCa. These steroidogenic enzymes represent targets for complete suppression of systemic and intratumoral androgen levels, an objective that is supported by the clinical efficacy of the CYP17 inhibitor abiraterone. A comprehensive AR axis-targeting approach via simultaneous, frontline enzymatic blockade, and/or transcriptional repression of several steroidogenic enzymes, in combination with GnRH analogs and potent antiandrogens, would represent a powerful future strategy for PCa management. ©2012 AACR.
Keywords: controlled study; human tissue; protein expression; unclassified drug; human cell; reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; gene expression; prostate cancer; regulatory mechanism; cancer cell; androgen receptor; oxidoreductase; prostate carcinoma; steroid 5alpha reductase; circulating tumor cell; castration resistant prostate cancer; copy number variation; cytochrome p450 3a4; cytochrome p450 3a5; androgen synthesis; metastatic prostate cancer; akr1c3 protein; cytochrome p450 3a7; steroid 5alpha reductase 1; steroid 5alpha reductase 2; steroid 5alpha reductase 3; androgen metabolism
Journal Title: Cancer Research
Volume: 72
Issue: 23
ISSN: 0008-5472
Publisher: American Association for Cancer Research  
Date Published: 2012-12-01
Start Page: 6142
End Page: 6152
Language: English
DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.can-12-1335
PROVIDER: scopus
PUBMED: 22971343
PMCID: PMC3685485
DOI/URL:
Notes: --- - "Export Date: 2 January 2013" - "CODEN: CNREA" - "Source: Scopus"
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MSK Authors
  1. Charles L Sawyers
    157 Sawyers
  2. Chris Sander
    196 Sander
  3. Martin Fleisher
    244 Fleisher
  4. Howard Scher
    837 Scher
  5. Daniel C Danila
    84 Danila
  6. Nikolaus D Schultz
    206 Schultz
  7. Clifford Sung
    7 Sung