PHF6 and DNMT3A mutations are enriched in distinct subgroups of mixed phenotype acute leukemia with T-lineage differentiation Journal Article

Authors: Xiao, W.; Bharadwaj, M.; Levine, M.; Farnhoud, N.; Pastore, F.; Getta, B. M.; Hultquist, A.; Famulare, C.; Medina, J. S.; Patel, M. A.; Gao, Q.; Lewis, N.; Pichardo, J.; Baik, J.; Shaffer, B.; Giralt, S.; Rampal, R.; Devlin, S.; Cimera, R.; Zhang, Y.; Arcila, M. E.; Papaemmanuil, E.; Levine, R. L.; Roshal, M.
Article Title: PHF6 and DNMT3A mutations are enriched in distinct subgroups of mixed phenotype acute leukemia with T-lineage differentiation
Abstract: The genetic aberrations that drive mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) remain largely unknown, with the exception of a small subset of MPALs harboring BCR-ABL1 and MLL translocations. We performed clinicopathologic and genetic evaluation of 52 presumptive MPAL cases at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Only 29 out of 52 (56%) cases were confirmed to be bona fide MPAL according to the 2016 World Heath Organization classification. We identified PHF6 and DNMT3A mutations as the most common recurrent mutations in MPAL, each occurring in 6 out of 26 (23%) cases. These mutations are mutually exclusive of each other and BCR-ABL1/MLL translocations. PHF6- and DNMT3A-mutated MPAL showed marked predilection for T-lineage differentiation (5/6 PHF6 mutated, 6/6 DNMT3A mutated). PHF6-mutated MPAL occurred in a younger patient cohort compared with DNMT3A-mutated cases (median age, 27 years vs 61 years, P < .01). All 3 MPAL cases with both T- and B-lineage differentiation harbored PHF6 mutations. MPAL with T-lineage differentiation was associated with nodal or extramedullary involvement (9/15 [60%] vs 0, P = .001) and a higher relapse incidence (78% vs 22%, P = .017) compared with those without T-lineage differentiation. Sequencing studies on flow-cytometry-sorted populations demonstrated that PHF6 mutations are present in all blast compartments regardless of lineage differentiation with high variant allele frequency, implicating PHF6 as an early mutation in MPAL pathogenesis. In conclusion, PHF6 and DNMT3A mutations are the most common somatic alterations identified in MPAL and appear to define 2 distinct subgroups of MPAL with T-lineage differentiation with inferior outcomes. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.
Journal Title: Blood Advances
Volume: 2
Issue: 23
ISSN: 2473-9529
Publisher: American Society of Hematology  
Date Published: 2018-12-11
Start Page: 3526
End Page: 3539
Language: English
DOI: 10.1182/bloodadvances.2018023531
PROVIDER: scopus c2 - 30530780
PMCID: PMC6290101
PUBMED: 30530780
Notes: Blood Adv -- Export Date: 2 January 2019 -- Article -- Source: Scopus C2 - 30530780
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