Imaging the heart in the cancer patient Book Section

Authors: Strauss, H. W.; Fox, J. J.
Editors: Strauss, H. W.; Mariani, G.; Volterrani, D.; Larson, S. M.
Article/Chapter Title: Imaging the heart in the cancer patient
Abstract: The average age of a cancer patient is 67. Sexagenarians with cancer are likely to have comorbidities at the time of diagnosis. Cancer patients > 55 years old have an average of ~2.9 comorbidities, while cancer patients older than 75 have an average of 4.2 comorbidities. The likelihood of coronary artery disease as an etiology of this comorbidity increases with the age of the patient. Cardiovascular comorbidity is present in ~20% of patients with neoplasm. These comorbidities increase the risk of a serious cardiovascular event during treatment. An additional risk factor is limited work capacity. If patients cannot perform 4 metabolic equivalents of work, their all cause mortality is increased. Patients with cancer and known cardiovascular comorbidity or risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, smoking history, or limitedworkcapacity shouldhavemedical clearance prior to invasive diagnostic procedures, major surgery, mediastinal radiation, and/or potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy. Medical clearance should include a detailed cardiovascular history and physical examination. This information will permit calculation of a clinical score to define the risk of adverse events as a result of a major surgical procedure, blood tests to determine hematologic and renal status, and if necessary, assessment of the patients work capacity. Stress testing with imaging should be done in patients with an intermediate risk of coronary heart disease and considered in patients with limited work capacity or advanced age. In selected patients, coronary CT angiography or coronary calcium score may be a suitable evaluation. In patients with cancer of the esophagus, breast, lung, melanoma, or lymphoma, chest-CT and PET/ CT studies should be carefully evaluated to detect possible pericardial or myocardial involvement. Chemotherapy may cause myocardial ischemia due to coronary spasm and decreased ventricular function due to irreversible or reversible myocardial damage, as well as repolarization abnormalities, which may result in fatal arrhythmia. Radiotherapy may accelerate the development of atherosclerosis of vessels in the radiation field and cause irreversible damage to myocardium in the radiation field. Myocardial perfusion imaging is useful to detect regions of acute ischemia or scar induced by therapy, while blood pool imaging is useful for serial monitoring of ventricular function. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017. All rights reserved.
Keywords: cancer coexisting with cardiovascular disease; cardiotoxic chemotherapy; cardiovascular comorbidities in the cancer patient; heart disease in cancer patients; heart imaging in the cancer patient; stress testing in cancer patients
Book Title: Nuclear Oncology: From Pathophysiology to Clinical Applications. 2nd ed
Volume: 3
ISBN: 978-3-319-26234-5
Publisher: Springer  
Publication Place: Cham, Switzerland
Date Published: 2017-01-01
Start Page: 1483
End Page: 1510
Language: English
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-26236-9_29
PROVIDER: scopus
Notes: Book Chapter: 51 -- Export Date: 3 December 2018 -- Source: Scopus
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MSK Authors
  1. Josef J Fox
    41 Fox
  2. Harry W Strauss
    138 Strauss