Reconstitution of the gut microbiota of antibiotic-treated patients by autologous fecal microbiota transplant Journal Article

Authors: Taur, Y.; Coyte, K.; Schluter, J.; Robilotti, E.; Figueroa, C.; Gjonbalaj, M.; Littmann, E. R.; Ling, L.; Miller, L.; Gyaltshen, Y.; Fontana, E.; Morjaria, S.; Gyurkocza, B.; Perales, M. A.; Castro-Malaspina, H.; Tamari, R.; Ponce, D.; Koehne, G.; Barker, J.; Jakubowski, A.; Papadopoulos, E.; Dahi, P.; Sauter, C.; Shaffer, B.; Young, J. W.; Peled, J.; Meagher, R. C.; Jenq, R. R.; van den Brink, M. R. M.; Giralt, S. A.; Pamer, E. G.; Xavier, J. B.
Article Title: Reconstitution of the gut microbiota of antibiotic-treated patients by autologous fecal microbiota transplant
Abstract: Antibiotic treatment can deplete the commensal bacteria of a patient's gut microbiota and, paradoxically, increase their risk of subsequent infections. In allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), antibiotic administration is essential for optimal clinical outcomes but significantly disrupts intestinal microbiota diversity, leading to loss of many beneficial microbes. Although gut microbiota diversity loss during allo-HSCT is associated with increased mortality, approaches to reestablish depleted commensal bacteria have yet to be developed. We have initiated a randomized, controlled clinical trial of autologous fecal microbiota transplantation (auto-FMT) versus no intervention and have analyzed the intestinal microbiota profiles of 25 allo-HSCT patients (14 who received auto-FMT treatment and 11 control patients who did not). Changes in gut microbiota diversity and composition revealed that the auto-FMT intervention boosted microbial diversity and reestablished the intestinal microbiota composition that the patient had before antibiotic treatment and allo-HSCT. These results demonstrate the potential for fecal sample banking and posttreatment remediation of a patient's gut microbiota after microbiota-depleting antibiotic treatment during allo-HSCT. Copyright © 2018 The Authors.
Journal Title: Science Translational Medicine
Volume: 10
Issue: 460
ISSN: 1946-6234
Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science  
Date Published: 2018-09-26
Start Page: eaap9489
Language: English
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aap9489
PROVIDER: scopus
PUBMED: 30257956
PMCID: PMC6468978
Notes: Article -- Export Date: 1 November 2018 -- Source: Scopus
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