Statistical interactions and Bayes estimation of log odds in case-control studies Journal Article

Authors: Satagopan, J. M.; Olson, S. H.; Elston, R. C.
Article Title: Statistical interactions and Bayes estimation of log odds in case-control studies
Abstract: This paper is concerned with the estimation of the logarithm of disease odds (log odds) when evaluating two risk factors, whether or not interactions are present. Statisticians define interaction as a departure from an additive model on a certain scale of measurement of the outcome. Certain interactions, known as removable interactions, may be eliminated by fitting an additive model under an invertible transformation of the outcome. This can potentially provide more precise estimates of log odds than fitting a model with interaction terms. In practice, we may also encounter nonremovable interactions. The model must then include interaction terms, regardless of the choice of the scale of the outcome. However, in practical settings, we do not know at the outset whether an interaction exists, and if so whether it is removable or nonremovable. Rather than trying to decide on significance levels to test for the existence of removable and nonremovable interactions, we develop a Bayes estimator based on a squared error loss function. We demonstrate the favorable bias-variance trade-offs of our approach using simulations, and provide empirical illustrations using data from three published endometrial cancer case-control studies. The methods are implemented in an R program, and available freely at∼satagopj. © The Author(s) 2014.
Keywords: transformation; bayes estimator; compositional epistasis; logistic link; mean squared error; minimax estimator; nonremovable interaction; removable interaction
Journal Title: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Volume: 26
Issue: 2
ISSN: 0962-2802
Publisher: Sage Publications  
Date Published: 2017-04-01
Start Page: 1021
End Page: 1038
Language: English
DOI: 10.1177/0962280214567140
PROVIDER: scopus
PMCID: PMC4834280
PUBMED: 25586327
Notes: Article -- Export Date: 2 June 2017 -- Source: Scopus
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MSK Authors
  1. Jaya M Satagopan
    137 Satagopan
  2. Sara H Olson
    213 Olson